Treatment for Hypertensive RetinopathyThe major aim of treatment is to prevent and limit damage to the eye and other organs by addressing the root cause – hypertension – through medication and lifestyle changes.
Treatments for Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO) RVO is usually treated in two ways. The first is to identify and treat any underlying medical problems that cause the condition.
The second is to prevent and treat any complications from RVO in the eye. In cases where retinal blood flow is poor, laser may be required to prevent the growth of abnormal blood vessels, which can cause bleeding, retinal detachment and glaucoma. In some cases where there is swelling of the macula affecting vision, regular injections of medications into the eye, called intravitreal injections with anti-VEGF (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) medications. Bevacizumab (Avastin), ranibizumab (Lucentis) and aflibercept (Eylea) are some medications that are frequently used. Other new medications are also in development, and may be available soon. These treatments can reduce the macular swelling and improve vision. Often, multiple injections at intervals of one month or longer are required to resolve the swelling. Repeated injections at longer intervals may also be required to maintain the visual improvement.
Treatment for Retinal Artery Occlusion (RAO) RAO is treated in two stages. Because permanent vision loss can occur very quickly with RAO, the first step is rapid diagnosis and treatment to try and restore blood flow in the eye, by lowering the eye pressure with ocular massage, medications, and sometimes drawing fluid out from the eye. Prompt treatment may improve the chance of recovering vision, but even with treatment, the risk of blindness after RAO is high, with only about one in four patients able to retain useful vision in the affected eye. The second stage of treatment is to find out the root cause for the condition. This is important because blood vessel problems that lead to RAO can also lead to blockage of blood vessels in the brain and stroke. Early diagnosis and treatment of such vascular problems can help to prevent stroke.
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