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Multiple Myeloma - Diagnosis

Several tests and procedures might be needed to diagnose myeloma and develop an effective treatment plan. 

These may include: 
  • Clinical examination: Your doctor will check for any myeloma related complications and assess baseline functional capacity of different organ systems.
  • Blood tests: To test blood cell, kidney and liver function assessments. Blood tests required for measurement of M protein, subtyping and quantification as well as investigations required for staging like beta-2 microglobulin, to assess the extent of complications or organ function effects like kidney, calcium level etc will be performed.
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: Bone marrow samples are usually taken by inserting a needle into the flat part of the hip bone to extract the samples. These are then examined in the laboratory for the presence of cancer cells. It will also help quantify the percentage of the cancer cells in the marrow and help with prognostication by seeking the genetic change that the cancer cells harbour.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests including X-Rays or CT scan, MRI scans of the back bones and PET scans may be used to look for extent of the bone destruction caused by myeloma in the body. 


Multiple Myeloma - Preparing for surgery

Multiple Myeloma - Post-surgery care

Multiple Myeloma - Other Information

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