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Ocular Imaging Research Group


Imaging plays an indispensable role in clinical care in ophthalmology, ranging from diagnostics to risk stratification and treatment monitoring. Imaging biomarkers were identified in many eye diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Headed by Professor Leopold Schmetterer, the Ocular Imaging Research Group aims to develop a strong network of shared platforms that will improve patient care, allow for multicentre trials, and will foster collaborations in several research themes spanning from posterior pole applications towards corneal OCT angiography.


  • Clinical studies on the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in patients with glaucoma, DR and AMD

  • Evaluation of novel imaging biomarkers in high myopia

  • Use of ultrahigh-resolution OCT techniques for the characterisation of the corneal and ocular surface disease

  • Use of novel anterior segment OCT techniques to image glaucoma

  • Studying the structure-function relationship in ocular disease

  • Establishment of imaging parameters as surrogate outcomes for clinical studies

  • Quantification of blood flow in the micro-vasculature using Doppler OCT and OCT-A

  • Validation of OCT-A technology in experimental animal models

  • Development of novel ultrahigh-resolution OCT technology

  • Multi-beam OCT approaches for retinal imaging

  • Multimodal retinal imaging

  • Assessment of tear film dynamics using OCT

  • OCT elastography to study biomechanical properties of tissue

  • Modelling of retinal and choroidal blood flow

  • Metabolic retinal imaging

  • Laser speckle technology to study ocular perfusion

  • Studying Ca2+ transport and neurovascular coupling in an animal model of glaucoma


  1. Calzetti G, Mursch-Edlmayr AS, Bata AM, Ungaro N, Mora P, Chua J, Schmidl D, Bolz M, Garhöfer G, Gandolfi S, Schmetterer L, Wong D. Measuring optic nerve head perfusion to monitor glaucoma: a study on structure-function relationships using laser speckle flowgraphy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2021.

  2. Porporato N, Tun TA, Baskaran M, Wong DWK, Husain R, Fu H, Sultana R, Perera S, Schmetterer L, Aung T. Towards 'automated gonioscopy': a deep learning algorithm for 360° angle assessment by swept-source optical coherence tomography. Br J Ophthalmol. 2021.

  3. Chua J, Ke M, Tan B, Gan ATL, Lim LS, Tan GS, Lee SY, Wong E, Schmetterer L, Cheung N. Association of macular and choroidal perfusion with long-term visual outcomes after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Br J Ophthalmol. 2021.

  4. Cheong H, Krishna Devalla S, Chuangsuwanich T, Tun TA, Wang X, Aung T, Schmetterer L, Buist ML, Boote C, Thiéry AH, Girard MJA. OCT-GAN: single step shadow and noise removal from optical coherence tomography images of the human optic nerve head. Biomed Opt Express. 2021 Feb 19;12(3):1482-1498.

  5. Liu X, Jiang L, Ke M, Schmetterer L, Barathi VA. Using image data to numerically correct the jitter in polarization depth encoding PS-OCT. Opt Lett. 2021 Apr 1;46(7):1692-1695.

  6. Ang M, Foo V, Ke M, Tan B, Tong L, Schmetterer L, Jodbhir M. Role of anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography in assessing limbal vasculature in acute chemical injury of the eye. Br J Ophthalmol. 2021.

  7. Chua J, Le TT, Tan B, Ke M, Li C, Wong DWK, Tan ACS, Lamoureux E, Wong TY, Chin CWL, Schmetterer L. Choriocapillaris microvasculature dysfunction in systemic hypertension. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4603.

  8. Ong HS, Tey KY, Ke M, Tan B, Chua J, Schmetterer L, Mehta JS, Ang M. A pilot study investigating anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography as a non-invasive tool in evaluating corneal vascularisation. Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1212.

  9. Zheng F, Chua J, Ke M, Tan B, Yu M, Hu Q, Cheung CMG, Ang M, Lee SY, Wong TY; SNEC Retina Group, Schmetterer L, Wong CW, Hoang QV. Quantitative OCT angiography of the retinal microvasculature and choriocapillaris in highly myopic eyes with myopic macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol. 2021.

  10. Wong D, Chua J, Lin E, Tan B, Yao X, Chong R, Sng C, Lau A, Husain R, Aung T, Schmetterer L. Focal structure-function relationships in primary open-angle glaucoma using OCT and OCT-A measurements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020 Dec 1;61(14):33.

  11. Hong J, Ke M, Tan B, Lau A, Wong D, Yao X, Liu X, Schmetterer L, Chua J. Effect of vessel enhancement filters on the repeatability of measurements obtained from widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 17;10(1):22179.

  12. Sharifizad M, Schmidl D, Werkmeister RM, Zeisler H, Told R, Binder J, Küssel L, Garhöfer G, Schmetterer L. Retinal vessel diameters, flicker-induced retinal vasodilation and retinal oxygen saturation in high-and low-risk pregnancy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2020.

  13. Chua J, Hu Q, Ke M, Tan B, Hong J, Yao X, Hilal S, Venketasubramanian N, Garhöfer G, Cheung CY, Wong TY, Chen CL, Schmetterer L. Retinal microvasculature dysfunction is associated with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2020 Dec 4;12(1):161.

  14. Chua J, Tan B, Ke M, Schwarzhans F, Vass C, Wong D, Nongpiur ME, Wei Chua MC, Yao X, Cheng CY, Aung T, Schmetterer L. Diagnostic ability of individual macular layers by spectral-domain OCT in different stages of glaucoma. Ophthalmol Glaucoma. Sep-Oct 2020;3(5):314-326.

  15. Ang M, Devarajan K, Tan AC, Ke M, Tan B, Teo K, Sng CCA, Ting DS, Schmetterer L. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography for iris vasculature in pigmented eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2020.         



Prof Leopold Schmetterer

Clinician Scientists

  • Assoc Prof Marcus Ang Han Nian

  • Assoc Prof Donny Hoang Quan Van Manh

  • Dr Rachel Chong Shujuan

  • Dr Jacqueline Chua Yu Min


  • Dr Damon Wong Wing Kee

  • Dr Ashish Saxena

  • Dr Carly Ouyang Qingling

  • Dr Liu Xinyu

  • Dr Muttikulangara Swaminathan Sanathanan

  • Dr Tan Bingyao

  • Dr Yao Xinwen

  • Dr Susan Jiang Liqin

  • Dr Kazuyo Ito

Research Associates/Officers

  • Ms Ashe Lee XinYee

  • Mr Ashish Jith Sreejith Kumar

  • Mr Dheo Arokhim Yusufi Cahyo

  • Ms Ke Mengyuan

  • Ms Rachel Li Chi

  • Ms Sim Yin Ci

  • Ms Yvonne Ng Bei Zhen

  • Ms Belinda Tan Yi Ling

  • Mr Daryl Renick Lee Liebin

  • Ms Lee Ying Shi

  • Mr Yap Chun Lin

Clinical Research Coordinators

  • Ms Hu Qinglan

  • Ms Janna Tay Lin Hui

  • Ms Shermaine Pow Bao Jie

Ophthalmic Research Technicians

  • Ms Chye Hui Yi

  • Ms Bhavani Kulantayan

  • Mr Myo Thu Khine

PhD Student

Ms Valentina Bellemo

Senior Executive (Administrative Matters)

Ms Jocelyn Cheong Mei Yoke