Skip Ribbon Commands
Skip to main content

Ocular Imaging Research Group


Imaging plays an indispensable role in clinical care in ophthalmology, ranging from diagnostics to risk stratification and treatment monitoring. Imaging biomarkers were identified in many diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma.

Headed by Professor Leopold Schmetterer, the Ocular Imaging Research Group aims to develop a strong network of shared platforms that will improve patient care, allow for multicenter trails, and will foster collaborations in several research themes spanning from posterior pole applications towards corneal OCT angiography.


  • Clinical studies on the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in patients with glaucoma, DR and AMD

  • Evaluation of novel imaging biomarkers in myopia

  • Use of ultrahigh-resolution OCT techniques for the characterisation of the corneal and ocular surface disease

  • Use of novel anterior segment OCT techniques to image glaucoma

  • Studying the structure-function relationship in ocular disease

  • Identification of risk factors for ocular disease

  • Establishment of imaging parameters as surrogate outcomes for clinical studies

  • Quantification of blood flow in the micro-vasculature using Doppler OCT and OCT-A

  • Validation of OCT-A technology in experimental animal models

  • Development of novel ultrahigh-resolution OCT technology

  • Multi-beam OCT approaches for retinal imaging

  • Multimodal retinal imaging

  • Assessment of tear film dynamics using OCT

  • OCT elastography to study biomechanical properties of tissue

  • Low coherence tissue interferometry to study the dynamics of ocular tissues

  • Modeling of retinal and choroidal blood flow

  • Metabolic retinal imaging

  • Laser speckle technology to study ocular perfusion

  • Studying Ca2+ transport and neurovascular coupling in an animal model of glaucoma


  • Anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Ang M, Baskaran M, Werkmeister RM, Chua J, Schmidl D, Aranha Dos Santos V, Garhöfer G, Mehta JS, Schmetterer L. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018 Apr 7.

  • Inter-relationship between ageing, body mass index, diabetes, systemic blood pressure and intraocular pressure in Asians: 6-year longitudinal study. Chua J, Chee ML, Chin CWL, Tham YC, Tan N, Lim SH, Aung T, Cheng CY, Wong TY, Schmetterer L. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018 Apr 9.

  • Method comparison of two non-invasive dual-wavelength spectrophotometric retinal oximeters in healthy young subjects during normoxia. Told R, Boltz A, Schmetterer L, Garhöfer G, Sacu S, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Pollreisz A. Acta Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb 28.

  • Assessment of choroidal blood flow using laser speckle flowgraphy. Calzetti G, Fondi K, Bata AM, Luft N, Wozniak PA, Witkowska KJ, Bolz M, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Werkmeister RM, Schmidl D, Garhöfer G, Schmetterer L. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb 22.

  • Distinguishing Keratoconic Eyes and Healthy Eyes Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Corneal Epithelium Thickness Mapping. Pircher N, Schwarzhans F, Holzer S, Lammer J, Schmidl D, Bata AM, Werkmeister RM, Seidel G, Garhöfer G, Gschließer A, Schmetterer L, Schmidinger G. Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 May;189:47-54.

  • The relationship of dietary fish intake to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular caliber in patients with type 2 diabetes. Chua J, Chia AR, Chee ML, Man REK, Tan GSW, Lamoureux EL, Wong TY, Chong MF, Schmetterer L. Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 15;8(1):730.

  • Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography systems for corneal vascularisation. Ang M, Devarajan K, Das S, Stanzel T, Tan A, Girard M, Schmetterer L, Mehta J. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep 22.

  • Retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with type 1 diabetes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy. Fondi K, Wozniak PA, Howorka K, Bata AM, Aschinger GC, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Witkowska KJ, Hommer A, Schmidl D, Werkmeister RM, Garhöfer G, Schmetterer L. Diabetologia. 2017 Aug;60(8):1534-1540.

  • Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea. Werkmeister RM, Sapeta S, Schmidl D, Garhöfer G, Schmidinger G, Aranha Dos Santos V, Aschinger GC, Baumgartner I, Pircher N, Schwarzhans F, Pantalon A, Dua H, Schmetterer L. Biomed Opt Express. 2017 Jan 30;8(2):1221-1239.

  • Posterior rat eye during acute intraocular pressure elevation studied using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Fialová S, Augustin M, Fischak C, Schmetterer L, Handschuh S, Glösmann M, Pircher M, Hitzenberger CK, Baumann B. Biomed Opt Express. 2016 Dec 16;8(1):298-314.

  • Effect of a Matrix Therapy Agent on Corneal Epithelial Healing After Standard Collagen Cross-linking in Patients With Keratoconus: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Bata AM, Witkowska KJ, Wozniak PA, Fondi K, Schmidinger G, Pircher N, Szegedi S, Aranha Dos Santos V, Pantalon A, Werkmeister RM, Garhofer G, Schmetterer L, Schmidl D. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct 1;134(10):1169-1176.

  • Super-resolved thickness maps of thin film phantoms and in vivo visualization of tear film lipid layer using OCT. Dos Santos VA, Schmetterer L, Triggs GJ, Leitgeb RA, Gröschl M, Messner A, Schmidl D, Garhofer G, Aschinger G, Werkmeister RM. Biomed Opt Express. 2016 Jun 16;7(7):2650-70.

  • Total Retinal Blood Flow in a Nonhuman Primate Optic Nerve Transection Model Using Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler FD-OCT and Microsphere Method. Told R, Wang L, Cull G, Thompson SJ, Burgoyne CF, Aschinger GC, Schmetterer L, Werkmeister RM. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Mar;57(3):1432-40.

  • Retinal oxygen extraction in humans. Werkmeister RM, Schmidl D, Aschinger G, Doblhoff-Dier V, Palkovits S, Wirth M, Garhöfer G, Linsenmeier RA, Leitgeb RA, Schmetterer L. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 27;5:15763.

  • In vivo tear film thickness measurement and tear film dynamics visualization using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Aranha Dos Santos V, Schmetterer L, Gröschl M, Garhofer G, Schmidl D, Kucera M, Unterhuber A, Hermand JP, Werkmeister RM. Opt Express. 2015 Aug 10;23(16):21043-63.



Prof Leopold Schmetterer

Team Members

  • Assoc Prof Marcus Ang

  • Dr Donny Hoang

  • Dr Rachel Chong

  • Dr Jacqueline Chua

  • Dr Tan Bingyao

  • Jocelyn Cheong Mei Yoke