Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in the world. It is a bacterial disease that results in a continuing loss of mineral ions from the tooth structure due to the presence of acid-producing oral bacteria and is the process that leads to tooth decay.
Tooth decay is the cause of cavities, pain, tooth loss and infection. It is the main reason why people seek dental treatment such as fillings, root canal treatment, extractions and other costly complicated dental procedures.
In the early stage of the disease, a white spot starts to form on the tooth surface. At this stage, the decay process is reversible as the tooth surface is still intact. If the caries disease is not treated, the continued loss of tooth minerals from the tooth results in the formation of a cavity, and the process then becomes irreversible. In severe cases, the caries can spread to the dental pulp causing pulpal infection.
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